MEEF - Middle East Economic Engineering - Articles
- Arabic Numbers
New Theory on the Typographical
Roots of the Hindu Arabic Numbers and Brahmi Scripts
numbers we use today are ideograms created by
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi
(c.778 - c.850).
Using the abacus notations,
he developed the manuscript decimal system.
Based on additives angles,
he defined the numbers 1,
And using his knowledge
about the abacus manuscript notations,
he defined the numbers 5,
Roots of the 1, 2, 3 and
The Arabic 1-2-3-4 numbers format
are based traces with angles:
The number one (1) has one angle.
The number two (2) has two additives angles.
The number three (3) has three additives angles.
The number four (4) has four additive angles.
The number four get closed due to cursive hand write.
Roots of the 5 and the 10
The circle is the symbol of the hand closed, which has five
The number five was written under the write line.
The number ten (the 2nd hand) was written (placed) on the top
of write line.
Theoretically, the circle on the top of the write line acquires
double value (ten value).
The abacus' figure and
the cursive circles:
The embryo circles: five, six and seven were placed below the
The embryo circles: ten, nine and eight were placed above the
The circles, the up
traces, the additive angles and the write line
To the circle five, one trace up was added, with one additive
angle making the number six.
To the circle five were added two up traces, with two additive
angles making the number seven.
The circles, the down
traces, the diminutive angles and the write line
To the circle ten was added one down trace, with one diminutive
angle making the number nine.
To the circle ten were added two down traces, with two
diminutives angles making the number eight.
The cursive handwriting ( gray
colour ) makes changes on the numbers format and aesthetic. The
cursive number five and the number seven still uses the write
line on its structures.
The number seven was placed
totally under the write line, and was the most simplified during
its cursive evolution (gray colour).
First the number seven was placed under the write line (blue
The involution of the number seven was necessary due to the
similarities that the cursive seven has with the number six.