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Abrasion Resistance Resistance of a surface of being worn away by
friction or rubbing process.
Absolute Volume The volume of an ingredient in its solid state,
without voids between individual pieces or particles, in the case of
fluids, the cubic content occupied. In concrete, the actual volume
occupied by the different ingredients determined by dividing the weight
of each ingredient pounds, by ifs specific gravity, times the weight of
one cubic foot of water in pounds. Example: Absolute Volume of one sack
of cement equals: 94 ÷ (3.15X62.4) = 0.478 cubic feet
Absorbed Moisture Moisture which is mechanically held in a
material. In aggregates, that water which is not available to become
part of the mixing water is designated "absorbed" water.
Absorption The process by which water is absorbed. The amount of
water absorbed under specific conditions, usually expressed as
percentage of the dry weight of the material.
Accelerator An admixture which, when added to concrete, mortar, or
grout, increases the rate of hydration of the hydraulic cement, shortens
the time of set and increases the rate of hardening or strength
Adiabatic Curing The maintenance of ambient conditions during the
setting and hardening of concrete so that heat is neither lost nor
gained from the surroundings of the concrete.
Admixture A material other than water, aggregates, and portland
cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete, and is added to the
batch immediately before or during the mixing operation.
Adsorption Water Water held on surfaces in a material by either physical and/or chemical forces.
Air Content The amount of entrained or entrapped air in concrete or
mortar, exclusive of pore space in aggregate particles, usually
expressed as a percentage of total volume of concrete or mortar.
Air Entraining Agent An addition for hydraulic cement, or an
admixture for concrete or mortar which entrains air in the form of
minute bubbles in the concrete or mortar during mixing.
Alkali-Aggregate Reaction Older terminology for Alkali-Silica
ASR - Alkali-Silica Reactivity The reaction of aggregates, which
contain some form of silica or carbonates with sodium oxides or
potassium oxides in cement, particularly in warm, moist climates or
environments, causing expansion, cracking or popouts in concrete.
Aluminous Cement A hydraulic cement in which the principal
constituents are calcium aluminates, instead of calcium silicates which
comprise the major ingredients of portland cement. (See calcium
Autoclave A chamber in which an environment of steam and high
pressure is produced. Used in curing of concrete products and in the
testing of hydraulic cement for soundness.
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