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AmerCable Incorporated

Articles - Concrete Terminology

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Temper The addition of water to the cement mix whether at the batch plant, during transit or at the jobsite to achieve the specified water to cement ratio.

Temperature Reinforcement  Reinforcement used to carry temperature stresses. 

Temperature Rise  The increase of concrete temperature caused by heat of hydration and heat from other sources.

Tilt-up A method of concrete construction such as where members are cast horizontally near their eventual position, usually on a recently placed slab,  and then tilted into place after removal of forms.

Transit-Mixed Concrete Concrete produced from a central-batching plant, where the materials are proportioned and placed in truck-mixers for mixing enroute to the job or after arrival there.

Tremie A pipe through which concrete may be placed under water, having at its upper end a hopper for filling, and a bale which permits handling of the assembly by a derrick.

Truck Mixer A concrete mixer capable of mixing concrete in transit when mounted on a truck chassis.

Ultimate Strength The maximum resistance to loads that a structure or member is capable of developing before failure occurs, or, with reference to cross sections of members, the largest axial force, shear or moment a structural concrete cross section will support.

Unit Water Content The quantity of water per unit volume of freshly mixed concrete, often expressed as gallons or pounds per cubic yard. This is the quantity of water on which the water cement ratio is based, and does not include water absorbed by the aggregate

Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor that is calculated based upon relative humidity and temperature. The higher the humidity and higher temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit, the greater the vapor pressure exerted.

Vapor  When a liquid changes to a gaseous form. The ability of the gas to hold moisture will reduce as temperatures reduce; more moisture can be contained in the gas as the temperatures increase.

Vaporproof A material that is totally immune to the passage of a gas under pressure. Any material that is truly vaporproof will inherently be waterproof.

Vibration Energetic agitation of concrete to assist in its consolidation, produced by mechanical oscillating devices at moderately high frequencies.

A.   External vibration employs a device attached to the forms and is particularly applicable to the manufacture of precast items and for the vibration of tunnel lining forms.

B.   Internal vibration employs an element which can be inserted into the concrete; and is more generally used for cast-in-place construction.

Vicat Apparatus A penetration device used to determine the setting characteristics of hydraulic cements.

Wagner Fineness The fineness of materials such as portland cement expressed as total surface area in centimeters per gram as determined by the Wagner turbidimeter apparatus and procedure.

Water-Cement Ratio The ratio of the amount of water, exclusive of that absorbed by the aggregates, to the amount of cement in a concrete mix.  Typically expressed as percentage of water, by weight in pounds, to the total weight of portland cement, fly ash, and any other cementitious material, per cubic yard, exclusive of any aggregates.

Waterproof A material or surface that is impervious or unaffected by water in its liquid form.will repel water in it's liquid form but may not necessarily be vaporproof.

Water Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by water vapor.  Air that contains higher amounts of water vapor exerts a higher vapor pressure than air which has a lower amount of  has a higher water vapor pressure In concrete water vapor pressure is calculated by the difference between the vapor pressure of the concrete and the ambient relative humidity and temperature and  in contact with the soil.  that is calculated by; based upon relative humidity and temperature. The greater the difference between the water vapor and ambient humidity and temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit. the greater the water vapor pressure exerted.

Wetting Agent A substance capable of lowering the surface tension of liquids, facilitating the wetting of solid surfaces and permitting the penetration of liquids into the capillaries.

Workability The ease with which a given set of  materials can be mixed into concrete and subsequently handled, transported, placed and finished with a minimum loss of homogeneity.

Yield The amount of concrete produced by a given combination of materials, the total weight of ingredients divided by the unit weight of the freshly mixed concrete; also, The cubic test of concrete produced per sack of cement; also, the number of product units, such as block, produced per batch of concrete or sack of cement.



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