2nd Middle East Water, Waste
Management Exhibition & Congress
17-19 April, 2009 - Dead Sea - Jordan
Water Quality and
Waste Management Glossary
Activated Carbon Filter: Water
treatment process to remove taste,
odor, some organic compounds, and
Adsorption: retention of a substance
by soil particles.
Aerobic: in the presence of or
(fertilizers and pesticides) used in
Algal Bloom: large, visible masses
of algae found in bodies of water
during warm water.
Alkalinity: capacity of water to
neutralize acids by its content of
bicarbonates, carbonates, or
Ambient Monitoring: performed to
determine existing environmental
conditions or contaminant levels in
the environment, against which
future conditions can be compared.
Anaerobic (Anoxic): in the absence
Aquifer: water-bearing formation of
rock or soil that will yield useable
supplies of water. May be classified
as confined or unconfined.
Artesian (Flowing) Aquifer: aquifer
in which water is held under
pressure by confining layers,
forcing water to rise in wells above
the top of the aquifer.
Assimilative Capacity: natural
ability of soil and water to use and
decompose potential pollutants
without harmful effects to the
Available Nitrogen: amount of
nitrogen present as either nitrate
or ammonium, forms which can be
readily taken up by plants.
Available Water: the portion of
water in soil that can be readily
absorbed by plant roots.
Background Level: amount of a
substance which occurs naturally in
Bacteria: microscopic one-celled
organisms which live everywhere and
perform a variety of functions.
While decomposing organic matter in
water, bacteria can greatly reduce
the amount of oxygen in the water.
Baler: machine used to compress and
bind recyclables, such as aluminum,
paper, corrugated cardboard and
Bentonite: highly plastic clay
consisting of the minerals
montmorillonite and beidellite that
swells when wet and is often used as
a lining material to seal landfills
Best Management Practice (BMP):
structural or managerial technique
recognized as the most effective and
practical means of controlling
pollution for an agricultural,
urban, forested, or mining area.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
laboratory measurement of the amount
of oxygen consumed by microorganisms
while decomposing organic matter in
a product. BOD levels are indicative
of the effect of the waste on fish
or other aquatic life which require
oxygen to live, and though not a
specific compound, it is defined as
a conventional pollutant under the
federal Clean Water Act.
Biodegradeable: capable of being
broken down (decomposed) by
Black Water: liquid and solid human
body waste and the carriage water
generated by toilet use.
Bottle Bill: law requiring deposits
on beverage containers (see
Container Deposit Legislation).
BTX: a test for benzene, toluene,
and xylene, three organic compounds
characteristically present in
Buffer Zone: neutral area which acts
as a protective barrier separating
two conflicting forces. An area
which acts to minimize the impact of
pollutants on the environment or
public welfare. For example, a
buffer zone is established between a
compositing facility and neighboring
residents to minimize odor problems.
Bulky Waste: large items of refuse
including, but not limited to,
appliances, furniture, large auto
parts, non-hazardous construction
and demolition material, trees,
branches and stumps which cannot be
handled by normal solid waste
processing, collection and disposal
Buy-Back Center: facility where
individuals bring recyclables in
exchange for payment.
Carcinogen: substance which causes
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):
laboratory measurement of the amount
of oxygen used in chemical reactions
that occur in water as a result of
the addition of wastes. A major
objective of conventional wastewater
treatment is to reduce the chemical
and biochemical oxygen demand.
Chlorination: addition of chlorine
as a means of disinfecting drinking
water or wastewater.
composting of two or more diverse
Coliform Bacteria: microorganisms
which typically inhabit the
intestines of warm-blooded animals.
They are commonly measured in
drinking water analyses to indicate
pollution by human or animal waste.
Commercial Waste: materials
originating in wholesale, retail,
institutional or service
establishments such as offices,
stores, markets, theaters, hotels
Commingled Recyclables : mixture of
several recyclable materials in one
Compactor: power-driven device used
to compress materials to smaller
Composting: controlled microbial
degradation of organic waste
yielding an environmentally sound
product with value as a soil
Response, Compensation and Liability
Act (CERCLA): See Superfund.
Confined Aquifer: water-bearing
formation whose upper boundary is a
layer which does not transmit water
Contaminant: any physical, chemical,
biological, or radiological
substance causing an impurity in the
Corrosive: capable of eating away
materials and destroying living
tissue on contact.
Corrugated: structural paper or
cardboard shaped in parallel furrows
and ridges for rigidity.
Curbside Collection: program where
recyclable materials are collected
at the curb, often from special
containers, to be taken to various
Deactivation: process in which a
pesticide adheres to a soil particle
or some organic material so tightly
that it is no longer biologically
Decomposition: breaking down into
component parts or basic elements.
Decomposition: breaking down into
component parts or basic elements.
Decomposition Gases: produced in the
breakdown of garbage or other
material. Some, such as methane, are
Degradable: capable of being
chemically reduced or broken down.
conversion of nitrate (NO3) to
nitrite (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and
free nitrogen (N), as in soil by
Dioxins: heterocyclic hydrocarbons
that occur as toxic impurities,
especially in pesticides.
Discharge: flow of surface water in
a stream or the flow of ground water
from a spring, ditch, or flowing
Disposable: manufactured to be used
for a short time and then thrown
away; not durable or repairable.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO): oxygen
dissolved in water and readily
available to fish and other aquatic
Diversion Rate: measure of the
amount of waste material being
diverted for recycling compared with
the total amount previously thrown
Drawdown: vertical drop of the water
level in a well during pumping.
Drop-off Center: method of
collecting recyclable or compostible
materials in which materials are
taken by individuals to collection
sites and deposited into designated
Ecosystem: community of animals and
plants and the physical environment
in which they live.
Effluent: discharge or emission of a
liquid or gas.
Energy Recovery: conversion of waste
energy, generally through the
combustion of processed or raw
refuse (incineration), to produce
Erosion: natural breakdown and
movement of soil and rock by water,
wind, or ice. The process may be
accelerated by human activities.
Escherichia coli (E. coli): species
of coliform bacteria that inhabit
intestines of people and animals.
Eutrophication: degradation of water
quality due enrichment by nutrients,
primarily nitrogen (N) and
phosphorus (P), which results in
excessive plant (principally algae)
growth and decay. Low dissolved
oxygen (DO) in the water is a common
Evapotranspiration (ET): loss of
water to the atmosphere from the
earth's surface by evaporation and
by transpiration through plants.
Explosive / Reactive: capable of
causing an explosion or releasing
poisonous fumes when exposed to air,
water, or other chemicals.
Formulation: the combination of
active and inactive (inert)
ingredients which make up a
Fumigant: gaseous material used to
destroy insects, pathogens, or other
pests in soil or grain bins.
Fungicide: substance that kills
Garbage: waste food that is thrown
away, generally defined as wet food
waste. The term is also used to
describe all products discarded,
regardless of their reusability or
Geographic Information System:
computerized database system
containing natural resources and
land use data that can be used to
analyze and display information in
spatial, or map, format.
Giardiasis: presence of the Giardia
lamblia protozoan in the human small
intestine which can cause diarrhea.
Grey Water: wastewater other than
sewage, such as sink or washing
Ground Water: water in the saturated
zone (below the water table).
Half-life: time required for
one-half of a specified substance to
Hammermill: type of crusher or
shredder used to break up waste
materials into smaller pieces.
Hardness: characteristic of water
which describes the presence of
dissolved minerals. Carbonate
hardness is caused by calcium and
magnesium bicarbonate; noncarbonate
hardness is caused by calcium
sulfate, calcium chloride, magnesium
sulfate, and magnesium chloride.
Hazardous Waste: solid, liquid, or
gaseous substance which, because of
its source or measurable
characteristics, is classified under
state or federal law as potentially
dangerous and is subject to special
handling, shipping, and disposal
Head: the height of a column of
water above a standard datum such as
mean sea level.
Health Advisory (HA):
reference level of drinking water
contaminants at which adverse health
effects are believed to be minimal.
HA levels are established for 1-day,
10-day, longer-term, and lifetime
exposure periods, and they include
large safety margins.
Heavy Metals: those metals (elements
with high density, malleability, and
electrical and thermal conductivity)
that have high specific gravity and
high atomic mass, such as lead,
cadmium, zinc, copper, silver, and
mercury. These may be found in the
waste stream as part of discarded
items such as batteries, lighting
fixtures, colorants and inks.
Herbicide: chemical used to destroy
or inhibit undesirable plant growth.
High Grade Paper: relatively
valuable paper such as computer
printout, white ledger, and tab
cards. Also used to refer to
industrial trimmings at paper mills
that are recycled.
Household Hazardous Waste: discarded
or usused portions of home cleaning
products, workshop and outdoor
chemicals, automotive fluids, and
personal care products that contain
toxic chemicals. Products labeled
WARNING, CAUTION, POISONOUS, TOXIC,
FLAMMABLE, REACTIVE, or EXPLOSIVE
are considered hazardous.
Humus: organic materials resulting
from decay or plant or animal
matter. Also referred to as compost.
Hydrologic Cycle: the movement of
water in and on the earth and
atmosphere through processes such as
precipitation, evaporation, runoff,
and infiltration.Hydrology: science
dealing with the properties,
distribution, and flow of water on
or in the earth.
Hydrolysis: reaction of a water
molecule with another larger
molecule, resulting in the splitting
of the larger molecule.
Ignitable: capable of burning or
causing a fire.
In-vessel Composting: method in
which the compost material is
continuously and mechanically mixed
and aerated in a large, contained
Incinerator: facility in which the
combustion of solid waste takes
Industrial Waste: materials
discarded from industrial operations
or derived from manufacturing
Infiltration: entry of water from
precipitation, irrigation, or runoff
into the soil profile.
Inorganic Chemicals: natural or
synthetic chemicals that contain no
Insecticide: substance that kills
Institutional Waste: material
originating in schools, hospitals,
prisons, research institutions, and
other public buildings.
Integrated Solid Waste Management:
practice of using several
alternative waste management
techniques to manage and dispose of
specific components of the municipal
waste stream. Waste management
alternatives include source
reduction, recycling, composting,
energy recovery, and landfilling.
Intermediate Processing Center (IPC):
type of materials recovery facility
(MRF) that processes residentially
collected mixed recyclables into new
products available for market; often
used interchangeably with MRF.
Landfill: see Sanitary Landfill.
Leaching: movement through soil of
dissolved or suspended substances in
Lethal Dose (LD): amount of a
substance required to cause death in
Loading: amount of a substance
entering the environment (soil,
water, or air).
Manual Separation: sorting of
recyclables or compositable
materials from waste by hand
Mass Burn: municipal waste
combustion technology in which solid
waste is burned in a controlled
system without prior sorting or
Materials Market: combination of
manufacturing interests which buy
recyclable materials and process
them for reuse. The demand for goods
made of recycled materials
determines the economic feasibility
of recycling and resource recovery.
Materials Recovery Facility (MRF):
facility that separates and
processes recyclable materials for
sale to an end user.
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):
enforceable EPA standard for the
maximum permissible concentration of
a contaminant in public water
supplies. An MCL is set after
considering health effects as well
as the feasibility and cost of
analysis and treatment of the
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG):
preliminary standard based entirely
on health effects which is used by
EPA to establish the MCL for a
contaminant. For a chemical believed
to cause cancer, the MCLG is zero.
Mechanical Separation: sorting of
waste into various components using
mechanical means, such as cyclones,
trommels, and screens.
Metabolites: breakdown chemical
products resulting when a pesticide
passes through a biological system.
Methane: odorless, colorless,
flammable and explosive gas produced
by municipal solid waste undergoing
anaerobic decomposition. Methane is
emitted from municipal solid waste
Mineral Water: contains large
amounts of dissolved minerals such
as calcium, sodium, magnesium, and
iron. Some tap waters contain as
many or more minerals than some
commercial mineral waters. There is
no scientific evidence that either
high or low mineral content water is
beneficial to humans.
Mineralization: microbial conversion
of an element from an organic
(containing carbon) to an inorganic
(not containing carbon) state.
Modular Incinerator: small-scale
waste combustion units prefabricated
at a manufacturing facility and
transported to the MWC facility
Most Probable Number (MPN):
statistical expression for
estimating the number of
microorganisms in a culture or a
volume of water.
Mulch: natural or artificial layer
of plant residue pr pther material
covering the land surface which
conserves soil moisture, holds soil
in place, aids in establishing plant
cover, and minimizes temperature
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW):
non-hazardous discarded material
generated in residential,
commercial, institutional, and light
industrial settings. It is defined
by local governments, and in general
does not include automobile oil,
tires, lead-acid batteries,
hazardous or infectious wastes,
demolition debris, etc.
NIMBY: acronym for "Not In My Back
Yard" which is an expression of
resident opposition to the siting of
a solid waste facility based on the
particular location proposed.
Nitrification: biochemical oxidation
of ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4), or
atmospheric nitrogen (N) to nitrate
(NO3) or nitrite (NO2).
No Observeable Adverse Effect Level
(NOAEL): chemical exposure dose or
level producing no observeable
adverse effect in long-term toxicity
studies. This level is used to
establish a tolerance for human
Nondischarge Systems : wastewater
disposal systems that do not
discharge to surface waters, such as
spray irrigation, land application,
or conventional septic systems.
Nonpoint Source (NPS) Contamination:
: water contamination derived from
diffuse sources such as construction
sites, agricultural fields, and
Nuisance Contaminant: constituents
in water which are not normally
harmful to health but may cause
offensive taste, odor, color,
corrosion, foaming, or staining.
Nutrient: element essential for
plant or animal growth. Major
nutrients include nitrogen,
phosphorus, carbon, oxygen, sulfur,
Organic Compound: any carbon-based
substance, including some petroleum
products, solvents, pesticides, and
halomethanes. Volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) are those which are
readily vaporized; a number of these
are known or probable carcinogens.
Oxygen Demand: materials such as
food waste and dead plant or animal
tissue that use up dissolved oxygen
in the water when they are degraded
through chemical or biological
processes. Chemical and biochemical
oxygen demand (COD and BOD) are
measures of the amount of oxygen
consumed when a substance degrades.
Package Treatment Plant:
wastewater treatment system used in
subdivisions or trailer parks.
Pathogen: disease-causing biological
agent such as a bacterium, virus, or
Percolation: movement of water
through soil or rock.
Permeability: capacity of soil,
sediment, or porous rock to transmit
Persistence: resistance to
degradation as measured by the
period of time required for complete
breakdown of a material. Depends on
temperature, pH, soil type, light
Pesticide: substance used for
controlling, destroying, or
repelling a specific pest. Includes
rodenticides, defoliants, and plant
Photodegradeable: capable of being
broken down (decomposed) by a
chemical reaction initiated by
direct exposure to the sun's
pH: numerical measure of acidity,
with a scale of 0 to 14. Neutral is
pH 7, values below 7 are acidic, and
values above 7 are alkaline.
Point-of-entry(POE): water treatment
system located at the entry point to
the home which treats all water used
in the home.
Point-of-use: water treatment system
located at the tap which treats only
water used from the tap.
Point Source Contamination: water
contamination from specific sources
such as leaking underground storage
tanks, landfills, industrial waste
discharge points, or chemical mixing
Pollution: presence of a contaminant
to such a degree that the
environment (land, water, or air) is
not suitable for a particular use.
Polychlorinated Byphenyl (PCB):
hazardous compound (suspected
carcinogen) used for electrical
insulation and heating/cooling
equipment which has been found in
air, soil, water, and fish across
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET):
recyclable plastic used to make
bottles such as soda bottles.
Recycled PET is used in car bumpers,
furniture, skis, surfboards, carpet
yarn, polyester fiber, films and
sheets, and molded parts.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): common
plastic material which releases
hydrochloric acid when burned.
Post-Consumer Recycling: reuse of
materials generated from residential
and commercial waste; excludes
recycling of material from
industrial processes that has not
reached the consumer, such as glass
broken in the manufacturing process.
Post-Consumer Waste: material
discarded by a business or residence
that has fulfilled its useful life.
Potable: suitable for drinking.
Primary Drinking Water Standards:
enforceable EPA standards which
establish MCLs for drinking water
contaminants after considering
health effects and the feasibility
and cost of analysis and treatment
of regulated contaminants.
Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW):
wastewater treatment facility
supported by public funding.
Pyrolysis: chemical decomposition of
a material by heat in the absence of
Radon: colorless, odorless,
tasteless, radioactive gas.
Receiving Waters : bodies of water
that receive runoff or wastewater
discharges, such as rivers, streams,
lakes, estuaries, and ground water.
Recharge: downward movement of water
through soil to ground water.
Recharge Area: land area over which
precipitation infiltrates into soil
and percolates downward to replenish
Recyclables: materials that still
have useful physical or chemical
properties after serving their
original purpose and that can be
reused or remanufactured into
additional products, thereby serving
as substitutes for raw materials.
Recycling: process by which
materials otherwise destined for
disposal are collected, reprocessed
or remanufactured, and reused.
Mandatory recycling programs require
by law that consumers separate trash
so that some or all recyclable
materials are not burned or dumped
Refractory: material able to
withstand dramatic heat variations
which may be used to construct
conventional combustion chambers in
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): product
of a mixed waste processing system
in which certain recyclable and
non-combustible materials are
removed, and the remaining
combustible material is converted
for use as a fuel to create energy.
Densified Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF)
results when the fuel is processed
to form briquettes, pellets, or
Residential Waste: materials
generated in single and
Residue: materials remaining after
composting, or recycling have been
completed; normally disposed of in
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA): federal legislation
related to hazardous waste (Subtitle
C), solid, non-hazardous waste
(Subtitle D), and the recovery and
use of recycled materials and energy
Resource Recovery: extraction and
utilization of materials and energy
from the waste stream.
Reuse: use of a product, such as a
softdrink bottle, in its original
form more than once for the same
Reverse Osmosis (RO):water treatment
process in which contaminants are
removed by forcing water through a
membrane having microscopic holes
that allow water molecules, but not
larger compounds, to pass through.
RO units do not remove all
chemicals, and they generally
discharge more than half of the
total water as waste.
Roll-off Container: large waste
container that fits onto a tractor
trailer and can be loaded and
Runoff: the portion of
precipitation, snow melt, or
irrigation which flows over and
through soil, eventually reaching
surface water (streams, rivers,
Safe Drinking Water Act(SDWA):
passed by Congress in 1974, and
ammended in 1986, to insure safe
drinking water. It directs the EPA
to establish and enforce water
quality standards to protect public
Salinity: quality of water based on
its salt content; seawater contains
approximately 18,000 parts per
million of salt.
Sanitary Landfill: solid waste
disposal site where waste is spread
in layers, compacted, and covered
with soil or other cover materials
each day to minimize pest,
aesthetic, disease, air pollution,
and water pollution problems. Modern
sanitary landfills are equipped with
leachate collection and monitoring
systems and methane gas controls and
are operated in accordance with
environmental protection standards.
Saturated Zone: portion of the soil
or rock profile in which all pores
are filled with water.
Scavenger: one who illegally removes
materials at any point in the solid
waste management system.
Scrap: discarded or rejected
industrial waste material often
suitable for recycling.
Scrubber: anti-pollution device that
uses a liquid or slurry spray to
remove acid gases and particulates
from municipal waste combustion
facility flue gases.
Secondary Drinking Water Standards:
EPA guidelines for establishing
Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels
(SMCLs), non-enforceable standards
for nuisance contaminants that cause
offensive taste, odor, color,
corrosion, foaming, and staining.
Secondary Material: used in place of
a primary or raw material in
manufacturing a product.
Sediment: eroded soil and rock
material, and plant debris,
transported and deposited by water.
Septic Tank: sewage disposal tank in
which a continuous flow of waste
material is decomposed by anaerobic
(in the absence of oxygen) bacteria.
Signal Word: warning required by the
Federal Hazardous Substances Act of
1960 to be used on the label of a
hazardous substance. Examples
include DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION,
Sludge: heavy, slimy residue
remaining from the treatment of
municipal and industrial water and
wastewater. Digested sewage sludge
remains after decomposition under
controlled temperature, pH, and
mixing in a digester tank.
Softening: process of removing
hardness caused by calcium and
magnesium minerals from water.
Soil Liner: landfill liner composed
of compacted soil or synthetic
material designed to assist in
containment of leachate.
Solid Waste Management: related to
storage, collection, transportation,
treatment, utilization, processing,
and final disposal of solid waste or
resource recovery, and facilities
necessary for such activities.
Solubility: amount of a substance
that will dissolve in a given amount
of another substance, typically
Soluble: capable of being dissolved
Solvent: liquid capable of
dissolving another substance.
Source Reduction: design,
nanufacture, acquisition, and reuse
of materials so as to minimize the
quantity and/or toxicity of waste
produced. Waste is eliminated by
redesigning products or by otherwise
changing societal patterns of
consumption, use, and waste
Source Separation: segregation of
specific recyclable materials at the
point of generation for separate
collection; often part of a curbside
Special Waste: items that require
special or separate handling, such
as household hazardous waste, bulky
waste, tires, and used oil.
Static Water Level: water level in a
well before pumping.
Superfund: common name for the
Response, Compensation and Liability
Act (CERCLA) designed to clean up
abandoned or inactive hazardous
waste dump sites.
Tipping Fee: Charge, usually in
dollars per ton, for the unloading
or dumping of waste at a landfill,
transfer station, recycling center,
or waste-to-energy facility, also
called a disposal or service fee.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS):
concentration of all substances
dissolved in water (solids remaining
after evaporation of a water
Toxic Substance (Toxicant): harmful
to plant or animal life, either
immediately (acute toxicity) or over
a long time period (chronic
Transfer Station: site where waste
materials are taken and temporarily
stored after collection, pending
shipment to a disposal site or
resource recovery facility.
Recycling and some processing may
also take place at transfer
Transmissivity: rate at which water
passes through a unit width of an
Trash: Material considered
worthless, unnecessary or offensive
that is usually thrown away. In
common usage, it is a synonym for
garbage, rubbish or refuge.
Tub Grinder: Machine to grind or
chip wood wastes for mulching,
composting or size reduction.
Turbidity: measure of water
cloudiness due to suspended solids.
Unconfined (Water Table) Aquifer:
water-bearing formation whose upper
boundary is the water table (as
opposed to a confining layer).
Unsaturated Zone: portion of the
soil profile which contains both air
and water. Water in this zone cannot
enter a well.
Vector: a carrier, typically an
insect or rodent, capable of
transmitting a disease.
Virgin Material: raw materials which
have never been processed in a
manufacturing system, usually
requiring more energy to produce
than when substituted for by
Volatilization: conversion of
substance to gaseous form.
Volume Reduction: the processing of
waste materials so as to decrease
the amount of space the materials
occupy, usually by compacting or
shredding (mechanical), incineration
(thermal), or composting
Waste Exchange: a computer and
catalog network that redirects waste
materials back into the
manufacturing or reuse process by
matching companies generating
specific waste with companies that
use those wastes as manufacturing
Waste Stream: the total waste
generated by all contributors
(households, industry, government)
in a particular area (city, county,
Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP):
facility that treats wastewater (and
sometimes runoff) from domestic
and/or industrial sources by a
combination of physical, chemical,
and biological processes.
Water Table: top of an unconfined
aquifer, below which the pore spaces
are saturated with water.
Watershed (Drainage Basin): all land
and water that drains runoff to a
stream or other surface water body.
Waterwall Incinerator: waste
combustion facility using lined
steel tubes filled with circulating
water for cooling. Heat from the
combustion gases is transferred to
the water, and the resultant steam
is sold or used to generate
Wetlands: areas that are regularly
wet or flooded and have a water
table that stands at or above the
land surface for at least part of
the year. Coastal wetlands extend
back from estuaries and include salt
marshes, tidal basins, marshes, and
mangrove swamps. Inland freshwater
wetlands consist of swamps, marshes,
White Goods: Large household
appliances such as refrigerators,
stoves, air conditioners and washing
Windrow: A large, elongated pile of
composting material. Yard Waste:
Leaves, grass clippings, prunings,
and other natural organic matter
discarded from yards and gardens.
Zoning: designation by ordinances of
areas of land reserved and regulated
for different land uses; a type of
regulatory ordinance based on a land
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm)
= 25.4 millimeters (mm)
1 foot (ft) = 30.5 centimeters (cm)
= 0.305 meters (m)
1 yard (yd) = 36 inches (in) = 0.914
1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft) = 1.61
1 square yard (yd2) = 9 square feet
(ft2) = 0.836 square meters (m2)
1 acre (ac) = 43,560 square feet
(ft2) = 0.405 hectares (ha) = 4050
square meters (m2)
1 square mile (mi2) = 640 acres (ac)
= 259 hectares (ha)
1 cubic foot (ft3) = 7.48 gallons
(gal) = 28.3 liters (L)
1 cubic yard (yd3) = 27 cubic feet
(ft3) = 202 gallons (gal) = 0.765
cubic meters (m3)
1 gallon (gal) = 0.137 cubic feet
(ft3) = 8.33 pounds (lbs) water =
3.78 liters (L)
1 acre-inch (ac-in) = 3630 cubic
feet (ft3) = 27,154 gallons (gal) =
102.8 cubic meters(m3)
1 acre-foot (ac-in) = 43,560 cubic
feet (ft3) = 325,851 gallons (gal) =
1234 cubic meters (m3)
1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (g) = 0.454
1 ton (ton) = 2000 pounds (lbs) =
907 kilograms (kg) = 0.907 megagrams
1 pound per acre (lb/ac) = 1.12
kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
1 bushel per acre, 60 lb (bu/ac) =
67.2 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
1 bushel per acre, 56 lb (bu/ac) =
62.7 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
1 bushel per acre, 48 lb (bu/ac) =
53.8 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
1 cubic foot per second (cfs) = 449
gallons per minute (gpm) = 28.32
liters per second (L/s)
1 million gallons per day (MGD) =
1.55 cubic feet per second (cfs) =
3785 cubic meters per day (m3/day)
1 milligram per liter (mg/L) =1 part
per million (ppm) =1000 parts per
1 microgram per liter (mg/L) =1
nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) = 1
part per billion (ppb) *
1 nanogram per liter (ng/L) =1 part
per trillion (ppt) = 1000 parts per
quadrillion (ppq) *
1 picogram per liter (pg/L) = 1 part
per quadrillion (ppq) *
1 grain per gallon (gpg) = 17.1
milligrams per liter (mg/L)
1 pound per square inch (psi) = 2.04
inches mercury (in Hg) = 27.7 inches
water (in H2O)
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